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Abdominal pain may be minor and of no great significance, or it can reflect a major problem involving one of the organs in the abdomen.The characteristics of the pain -- location, timing, duration, etc. are important in diagnosing its cause. Persisting ab

Posted on 27 March, 2015 at 12:46 Comments comments (0)
Abdominal pain (Pain in the belly) can be associated with a variety of conditions both within and outside of the abdomen. Abdominal pain can be acute and sudden in onset, or the pain can be chronic and longstanding. 

The cause of abdominal problems can be hard to pinpoint. Sometimes minor and serious abdominal problems start with the same symptoms.  Pain that increases with movement or coughing and does not appear to be caused by strained muscles is more likely to be a symptom of a serious problem.  

Severe abdominal pain is a greater cause for concern. If it starts suddenly and unexpectedly, it should be regarded as a medical emergency, especially if the pain is concentrated in a particular area. 

Whether it's a mild stomach ache, sharp pain, or stomach cramps, abdominal pain can have numerous causes. Fortunately, most abdominal problems are minor, and home treatment is all that is needed. Some serious causes of sudden severe abdominal pain include:

  •  Appendicitis – the swelling of the appendix (a finger-like pouch connected to the large intestine), which causes agonizing pain in the lower right-hand side of your abdomen, and means your appendix will need to be removed.

  • a bleeding or perforated stomach Ulcer – a bleeding, open sore in the lining of your stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine)

  • Acute Cholecystitis – inflammation of the gallbladder, which is often caused by gallstones; in many cases, your gallbladder will need to be removed

  • Kidney stones – small stones may be passed out in your urine, but larger stones may block the kidney tubes, and you'll need to go to hospital to have them broken up

  • Diverticulitis – inflammation of the small pouches in the bowel that sometimes requires treatment with antibiotics in hospital

Some of the more common causes include:
  • Indigestion after eating
  •  Pregnancy, gas,
  • Bladder infections
  • Appendicitis, ulcers, gastritis,
  • parasite infection, 
  • Abdominal muscle injury, 
  • Abdominal hernia, 
  • lactose intolerance, 
  • Food poisoning,
  •  Menstrual cramps,
  •  abdominal organ injury from trauma, and constipation.
  • Abdominal pain can also be a common side effect of medication. When you use certain drugs chronically, it can cause abdominal pain. In some cases this can be solved by switching the medication for similar other drugs

In order for your health care provider to assist you in managing your pain, it is helpful for you to be able to adequately describe your pain. If your abdominal pain lasts longer than 24 hours, or gets worse as time passes, call your doctor right away.

December 1, 2014 is World Aids Day: Be supportive, With enough support from family and friends, people living with HIV and those affected can learn to manage the emotional impact that the epidemic continues to have on millions of people worldwide.

Posted on 30 November, 2014 at 4:55 Comments comments (18)
AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)  is a medical condition. A person is diagnosed with AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infections. HIV, stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells.

HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with an infected person. It may also spread by sharing drug needles or through contact with the blood of an infected person. Women can give it to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth.

There is no cure, but there are many medicines to fight both HIV infection and the infections and cancers that come with it. Although there is no cure for HIV, treatments are now very effective, people living with HIV can live long and healthy lives, can now protect their partners from becoming infected with the virus, and can keep their children free from HIV.

If you answer yes to any of the following questions, you are at increased risk for HIV infection and should definitely get an HIV test:

  • Have you had sex with someone who is HIV-positive or a person whose HIV status you didn't know since your last HIV test?

  • Have you injected drugs (including steroids, hormones, or silicone) and shared equipment (or “works,” such as needles or syringes) with others?

  • Have you exchanged sex for food, shelter, drugs, or money?

  • Have you been diagnosed with, or sought treatment for a sexually transmitted disease, like syphilis?

  • Have you been diagnosed with or sought treatment for hepatitis or tuberculosis (TB)?

  • Have you had sex with anyone who has any of the risk factors listed above or whose history you don’t know?

If you continue having unsafe sex or sharing injection drug equipment, you should get tested at least once a year. Sexually active gay and bisexual men may benefit from more frequent testing (e.g. every 3 to 6 months).

You should also get tested if:

  • You have been sexually assaulted

  • You are a woman who is planning to get pregnant or is pregnant.

You can get an HIV test from your doctor or healthcare provider, community health center, Veteran’s health center, Title X family planning clinic, and other locations.

Did you Know?, HIV cannot be transmitted by:
  • Surfaces - HIV cannot be transmitted by contact with toilet seats, eating utensils, musical instruments, hugs or handshakes.

  • Air – Breathing the same air as someone living with HIV does not transmit HIV. 

  • Coughing, sneezing or spitting cannot transmit HIV either.

  • Kissing - Saliva contains very small amounts of HIV. The risk is negligible unless both partners have large open sores in their mouth or bleeding gums.

  • Insect bites - Insects such as mosquitoes don't transmit HIV because they do not inject blood when they bite.

  • Sterile needles - Sterilized or new needles and syringes are safe from HIV transmission. Do not share used needles.

  • Water - HIV cannot survive in water, so you are free from HIV transmission in swimming pools, baths or shower areas.

HIV can be transmitted by:
  • Vaginal sex - HIV can be transmitted from woman to man or vice versa. Open cuts and sores increase the risk.
  • Anal sex - Higher risk than vaginal sex because the lining of the anus is more likely to tear, creating an entry point for HIV.
  • Oral sex - Has a very small risk, but only if there are sores in/around the mouth or on the receiving partner’s genitals.
  • Injecting drugs - Shared sterilized equipment can carry infected blood. Needles used for tattooing and body piercing can also carry a small risk.
  • Blood transfusions - All donated blood should be tested for HIV; any untested blood carries a risk of HIV transmission to the patient receiving the blood transfusion.
  • Mother-to-child - Transmission can occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breastfeeding if HIV treatment is not taken routinely. 

The best way to prevent HIV is to use a condom for sex and to never share needles or other injecting equipment (including syringes, spoons and swabs). Knowing your HIV status and that of your partner is also important.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) (STI) :------- HPV vaccine can prevent certain cancers and other diseases caused by human papillomavirus and help prevent Health problems such as: genital warts and cervical cancer.

Posted on 28 October, 2014 at 1:03 Comments comments (17)
Get vaccinated against HPV.  HPV vaccines are safe and effective. Prevention is better than treatment. Get your girls and your boys vaccinated at 11 or 12, or as soon as possible if they're already 13 or older. HPV vaccine produces a higher immune response in preteens than in older teens and young adults.

What is HPV?
HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI).Nearly all sexually active men and women will get HPV at some point in their lives. HPV vaccines can protect males and females against diseases (including cancers) caused by HPV when given in the recommended age groups. HPV vaccines are given in three shots over six months; it is important to get all three doses, long before being exposed to HPV.  

Health care providers classify HPV as low risk and high risk. 
-----Low-risk HPV infections usually cause genital warts. 
Genital warts may appear as flat lesions, 
small cauliflower-like bumps or otherwise.

Most people with HPV do not know they are infected and never develop symptoms or health problems from it. Some people find out they have HPV when they get genital warts. In most cases, your body's immune system defeats an HPV infection before it has a chance to create any warts.

------High Risk Strains:  Strains of HPV classified as "high risk" are associated with both mild and severe cervical abnormalities found on a Pap test. When left untreated for several years, these abnormalities could develop into cervical cancer. Less frequently, high risk strains can cause atypical genital warts that can have precancerous and cancerous changes within them

HPV can lie dormant for many years before causing cancerous changes to the cervix. It is important that women continue to get regular Pap smears throughout their lifetimes. No woman should ever have to die of cervical cancer. Regular Pap smears can detect HPV-induced changes to the cervix early, when they are still very treatable.

Engaging in high risk sexual behavior increases your risk of contracting both high and low risk strains of HPV. 
You can be infected with more than one strain of HPV . An infected person can be a carrier of several strains of HPV concurrently. The good news is that for most people, both high and low risk HPV infections clear up without medical intervention.

Chikungunya ( prounced-"chik-en-gun-ye.") is an illness caused by a virus that spreads through mosquito bites. Chikungunya disease does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe and disabling.

Posted on 18 September, 2014 at 8:10 Comments comments (13)
Are you feeling sick and think you may have chikungunya???
Chikungunya virus is primarily transmitted to human through mosquitoes: And though the disease can't be spread directly from person to person when a mosquito feeds on an infected person, the mosquito can become infected and can bite and infect others. according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The virus can stay in a person's system for about a week according to the World Health Organization.
Unfortunately there is no vaccine or medicine to prevent chikungunya. The only way to prevent chikungunya is to prevent mosquito bites. Preventing bites can be difficult,but it is important, as you can get sick after just one bite.

Most people infected with chikungunya virus will develop some symptoms.
Symptoms usually begin 3–7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of chikungunya virus infection are:
  • fever and joint pain.
Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms. Other symptoms may include:
  •  headache, 
  • muscle pain,
  •  joint swelling, 
  •  arthritis, 
  • conjunctivitis, 
  • nausea/vomiting, or rash. 

 The symptoms of chikungunya are similar to those of dengue, another disease spread by mosquitoesSee your doctor if you develop the symptoms described above. Treatment is available to relieving the symptoms.   

Most patients feel better within a week. In some people, the joint pain may persist for months. People at increased risk for severe disease include:
  • Newborn exposed during delivery
  • Older Adults 
  • and people with medical conditions such as(high blood pressure, diabetes or heart disease.

To fight the spread of chikungunya and other mosquito-borne diseases, experts recommend practical measures such as: Getting rid of standing bodies of water (where mosquitoes often breed) under potted plants and in spare tires,
  • Using mosquito nets,
  • Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants,
  •  And, applying mosquito repellents

The acute chikungunya can be bad but the relapse can be worse; stay protected and avoid yourself from getting chikungunya in the first place.









Flu Season 2014

Posted on 14 January, 2014 at 3:28 Comments comments (14)
Ok, so we know that we are in flu season, but some of us think, it only happens to other people. Stay safe and get your flu shot if- it's not contraindicated for you. The H1N1 strain seems to be the most potent this season, so please be mindful as you encounter people all around. Any questions, send me an email.

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